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July 2011

Attacking the Root Causes of Reproductive Injustice

One of the most important aspects of reproductive justice is how broad the topic is and just how many issues it encompasses. But the expansive nature of reproductive justice means that reproductive injustice is just as extensive.  Jill Adams, the Executive Director of Law Students for Reproductive Justice (LSRJ), described this paradox perfectly when she presented at LSRJ’s 2011 Leadership Institute. She simply stated that reproductive justice could only come about when the structures and systems that sustain and support the reproductive oppression that takes place on the surface are changed.

In other words, ending the reproductive oppression that comes about from certain laws and policies means attacking the root causes that allow for those laws and policies to be implemented in the first place. After all, the best way to bring down a building is to blow out its foundation. If the reproductive justice movement wishes to help immigrant women obtain health care, it means attacking the local, state, and national policies that combine to effectively deny access to government-funded health services for immigrant women and their children. For example, it must address laws like Arizona’s Proposition 200, which makes it a misdemeanor for public officials to fail to report individuals they suspect are undocumented.

Furthermore, we talked about three methods that can help address the root causes of reproductive injustice: (1) demonstrating links between individual reproductive health and rights and the broader structures of inequality (2) addressing cultural assumptions and ideas that breed reproductive oppression and (3) empowering marginalized communities. The creative organizing and clever litigation that will be promoted by the individuals attending LSRJ’s Leadership Institute is yet another way to attack extensive reproductive injustice and what makes me excited to be a part of this movement.

Johanna Gusman

 

Tagged with:

Learning How to Be a Realistic and Idealistic Law Student

The most powerful experiences I had today involved discussing the role of law and lawyers in the reproductive justice movement.  I came to law school to fight for justice.   When I told 2Ls, 3Ls and seasoned lawyers this, many replied that I’d soon lose my idealism. Now a year into my legal education, I see why.

Legal rights can exist in name only.  Governments sometimes do a poor job of implementing a law or fail to implement a law altogether.  People can lack meaningful access to a right, depending on intersections of race, class, gender, sexual identity and orientation, and ability.  Additionally the make up of a law school’s student body is usually not reflective of the people the reproductive justice movement prioritizes.  This means that engaging in the movement in a respectful way requires care.  It’s easy to feel discouraged after encountering example after example of these obstacles in law school.

During a session today, we were told that getting or keeping a law on the books is not justice but just the beginning. Establishing a legal right to something will never be adequate to realize reproductive justice. However, the law is a required tool. We also saw examples of how lawyers, particularly those with multiple privileged identities, can engage in the movement and remain true to its focus on amplifying marginalized voices.

Addressing reproductive issues from within a system that often perpetuates reproductive oppression can be disheartening.  That is why conversations the Leadership Institute fosters are crucial to encouraging idealism among law students.

Mallory Carlberg

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Finding our footing on conservative campuses

Does your campus’s LSRJ chapter face opposition in regard to facilitating a comprehensive conversation about reproductive justice? Well mine definitely does! While my campus has a mix of people with different backgrounds, and a rich liberal arts community, the Midwest doesn’t exactly scream bleeding liberal. Some LSRJ chapters at conservative campuses face opposition in the form of other, more conservative, student run organizations; some face it from their administrations, and others from their peers, or the community in general. Whatever the opposition is, it can be incredibly frustrating and disheartening.

The question is, how do we combat this conservative opposition and oppression, in order to facilitate a discussion and educate others about the RJ movement? I am obviously not alone in facing these problems, as Sandra Fluke of Georgetown lead a packed room in a discussion on this question at the first Issue Caucus that I attended at the Leadership Institute, LSRJ’s national conference at Berkeley.

While no solution was definitively reached, and I personally don’t begin to have the “right” answer, I was really charged by the discussion and feel many great ideas were presented. Some campus chapters decided to take an adversarial approach, feeling it important to use those “scary” words the opposition fears. They feel it important to speak out because there are so many that are ill-informed. Others, including myself, have chosen to take a more middle-ground approach on our campuses. Such chapters feel it important to use an intersectional approach in order to highlight common ground; while we refuse to apologize for our stance, we understand this can be most effective given the types of opposition we face.

Whether it is forming a coalition with an unlikely ally, finding a faculty member to back your cause, or a hosting a fundraiser to bring in members of the community, it is important that we find which avenues best fit our campuses. There is not only one way to approach this problem, but there are a variety of steps we can take to advance our cause and educate others about RJ issues. For me, I strongly feel that as we keep in mind the LSRJ/RJ vision, and keep the discussion alive, we will ultimately find the avenue that best fits our campuses and communities at large.

Nikki Tuttle

Tagged with: ,

21st-Century Slaves: How Corporations Exploit Prison Labor | World | AlterNet

21st-Century Slaves: How Corporations Exploit Prison Labor | World | AlterNet

By Rania Khalek, AlterNetPosted on July 21, 2011


There is one group of American workers so disenfranchised that corporations are able to get away with paying them wages that rival those of third-world sweatshops. These laborers have been legally stripped of their political, economic and social rights and ultimately relegated to second-class citizens. They are banned from unionizing, violently silenced from speaking out and forced to work for little to no wages. This marginalization renders them practically invisible, as they are kept hidden from society with no available recourse to improve their circumstances or change their plight.

They are the 2.3 million American prisoners locked behind bars where we cannot see or hear them. And they are modern-day slaves of the 21st century.

Incarceration Nation

It’s no secret that America imprisons more of its citizens than any other nation in history. With just 5 percent of the world’s population, the US currently holds 25 percent of the world's prisoners. In 2008, over 2.3 million Americans were in prison or jail, with one of every 48 working-age men behind bars. That doesn’t include the tens of thousands of detained undocumented immigrants facing deportation, prisoners awaiting sentencing, or juveniles caught up in the school-to-prison pipeline. Perhaps it’s reassuring to some that the US still holds the number one title in at least one arena, but needless to say the hyper-incarceration plaguing America has had a damaging effect on society at large.

According to a study by the Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR), US prison rates are not just excessive in comparison to the rest of the world, they are also substantially higher than our own longstanding history. The study finds that incarceration rates between 1880 and 1970 ranged from about 100 to 200 prisoners per 100,000 people. After 1980, the inmate population began to grow much more rapidly than the overall population and the rate climbed from about 220 in 1980 to 458 in 1990, 683 in 2000, and 753 in 2008.

The costs of this incarceration industry are far from evenly distributed, with the impact of excessive incarceration falling predominantly on African-American communities. Although black people make up just 13 percent of the overall population, they account for 40 percent of US prisoners. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), black males are incarcerated at a rate more than 6.5 times that of white males and 2.5 that of Hispanic males and black females are incarcerated at approximately three times the rate of white females and twice that of Hispanic females.

Michelle Alexander points out in her book The New Jim Crow that more black men are in jail, on probation, or on parole than were enslaved in 1850. Higher rates of black drug arrests do not reflect higher rates of black drug offenses. In fact, whites and blacks engage in drug offenses, possession and sales at roughly comparable rates.

Incentivizing Incarceration

Clearly, the US prison system is riddled with racism and classism, but it gets worse. As it turns out, private companies have a cheap, easy labor market, and it isn’t in China, Indonesia, Haiti, or Mexico. It’s right here in the land of the free, where large corporations increasingly employ prisoners as a source of cheap and sometimes free labor.

In the eyes of the corporation, inmate labor is a brilliant strategy in the eternal quest to maximize profit. By dipping into the prison labor pool, companies have their pick of workers who are not only cheap but easily controlled. Companies are free to avoid providing benefits like health insurance or sick days, while simultaneously paying little to no wages. They don’t need to worry about unions or demands for vacation time or raises. Inmate workers are full-time and never late or absent because of family problems.

If they refuse to work, they are moved to disciplinary housing and lose canteen privileges along with "good time" credit that reduces their sentences. To top it off, the federal government subsidizes the use of inmate labor by private companies through lucrative tax write-offs. Under the Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC), private-sector employers earn a tax credit of $2,400 for every work release inmate they employ as a reward for hiring “risky target groups” and they can earn back up to 40 percent of the wages they pay annually to "target group workers."

Study after study demonstrates the wastefulness of America's prison-industrial complex, in both taxpayer dollars and innocent lives, yet rolling back imprisonment rates is proving to be more challenging than ever. Meanwhile, the use of private prisons and now privately contracted inmate labor has created a system that does not exactly incentivize leaner sentencing.

The disturbing implications of such a system mean that skyrocketing imprisonment for the possession of miniscule amounts of marijuana and the the expansion of severe mandatory sentencing laws regardless of the conviction, are policies that have to potential to increase corporate profits. As are the“three strikes laws” that require courts to hand down mandatory and extended sentences to people who have been convicted of felonies on three or more separate occasions. People have literally been sentenced to life for minor crimes like shoplifting.


The Reinvention of Slavery

The exploitation of prison labor is by no means a new phenomenon. Jaron Browne, an organizer with People Organized to Win Employment Rights (POWER), maps out how the exploitation of prison labor in America is rooted in slavery. The abolition of slavery dealt a devastating economic blow to the South following the loss of free labor after the Civil War. So in the late 19th century, an extensive prison system was created in the South in order to maintain the racial and economic relationship of slavery, a mechanism responsible for re-enslaving black workers. Browne describes Louisiana’s famous Angola Prison to illustrate the intentional transformation from slave to inmate:

“In 1880, this 8000-acre family plantation was purchased by the state of Louisiana and converted into a prison. Slave quarters became cell units. Now expanded to 18,000 acres, the Angola plantation is tilled by prisoners working the land—a chilling picture of modern day chattel slavery.”

The abolition of slavery quickly gave rise to the Black Codes and Convict Leasing, which together worked wonders at perpetuating African American servitude by exploiting a loophole in the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution, which reads:

“Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”

The Black Codes were a set of laws that criminalized legal activity for African Americans and provided a pretext for the arrest and mass imprisonment of newly freed blacks, which caused the percentage of African Americans in prison to surpass whites for the first time. Convict leasing involved leasing out prisoners to private companies that paid the state a certain fee in return. Convicts worked for the companies during the day outside the prison and returned to their cells at night. The system provided revenue for the state and profits for plantation owners and wasn’t abolished until the 1930s.

Unfortunately, convict leasing was quickly replaced with equally despicable state-run chain gangs. Once again, stories of vicious abuse created enough public anger to abolish chain gangs by the 1950s. Nevertheless, the systems of prisoner exploitation never actually disappeared.

Today’s corporations can lease factories in prisons, as well as lease prisoners out to their factories. In many cases, private corporations are running prisons-for-profit, further incentivizing their stake in locking people up. The government is profiting as well, by running prison factories that operate as multibillion-dollar industries in every state, and throughout the federal prison system, where prisoners are contracted out to major corporations by the state.

In the most extreme cases, we are even witnessing the reemergence of the chain gang. In Arizona, the self-proclaimed “toughest sheriff in America,” Joe Arpaio, requires his Maricopa County inmates to enroll in chain gangs to perform various community services or face lockdown with three other inmates in an 8-by-12-foot cell, for 23 hours a day. In June of this year, Arpaio started a female-only chain gang made up of women convicted of driving under the influence. In a press release he boasted that the inmates would be wearing pink T-shirts emblazoned with messages about drinking and driving.

The modern-day version of convict leasing was recently spotted in Georgia, where Governor Nathan Deal proposed sending unemployed probationers to work in Georgia's fields as a solution to a perceived labor shortage following the passage of the country’s most draconian anti-immigrant law. But his plan backfired when some of the probationers began walking off their jobs because the fieldwork was too strenuous.

There has also been a disturbing reemergence of the debtors’ prison, which should serve as an ominous sign of our dangerous reliance on prisons to manage any and all of society’s problems. According to the Wall Street Journal more than a third of all U.S. states allow borrowers who can't or won't pay to be jailed. They found that judges signed off on more than 5,000 such warrants since the start of 2010 in nine counties. It appears that any act that can be criminalized in the era of private prisons and inmate labor will certainly end in jail time, further increasing the ranks of the captive workforce.

Who Profits?

Prior to the 1970s, private corporations were prohibited from using prison labor as a result of the chain gang and convict leasing scandals. But in 1979, Congress began a process of deregulation to restore private sector involvement in prison industries to its former status, provided certain conditions of the labor market were met. Over the last 30 years, at least 37 states have enacted laws permitting the use of convict labor by private enterprise, with an average pay of $0.93 to $4.73 per day.

Federal prisoners receive more generous wages that range from $0.23 to $1.25 per hour, and are employed by Unicor, a wholly owned government corporation established by Congress in 1934. Its principal customer is the Department of Defense, from which Unicor derives approximately 53 percent of its sales. Some 21,836 inmates work in Unicor programs. Subsequently, the nation's prison industry – prison labor programs producing goods or services sold to other government agencies or to the private sector -- now employs more people than any Fortune 500 company (besides General Motors), and generates about $2.4 billion in revenue annually. Noah Zatz of UCLA law school estimates that:

“Well over 600,000, and probably close to a million, inmates are working full-time in jails and prisons throughout the United States. Perhaps some of them built your desk chair: office furniture, especially in state universities and the federal government, is a major prison labor product. Inmates also take hotel reservations at corporate call centers, make body armor for the U.S. military, and manufacture prison chic fashion accessories, in addition to the iconic task of stamping license plates.”

Some of the largest and most powerful corporations have a stake in the expansion of the prison labor market, including but not limited to IBM, Boeing, Motorola, Microsoft, AT&T, Wireless, Texas Instrument, Dell, Compaq, Honeywell, Hewlett-Packard, Nortel, Lucent Technologies, 3Com, Intel, Northern Telecom, TWA, Nordstrom's, Revlon, Macy's, Pierre Cardin, Target Stores, and many more. Between 1980 and 1994 alone, profits went up from $392 million to $1.31 billion. Since the prison labor force has likely grown since then, it is safe to assume that the profits accrued from the use of prison labor have reached even higher levels.

In an article for Mother Jones, Caroline Winter details a number of mega-corporations that have profited off of inmates:

“In the 1990s, subcontractor Third Generation hired 35 female South Carolina inmates to sew lingerie and leisure wear for Victoria's Secret and JCPenney. In 1997, a California prison put two men in solitary for telling journalists they were ordered to replace 'Made in Honduras' labels on garments with 'Made in the USA.'"

According to Winter, the defense industry is a large part of the equation as well:

“Unicor, says that in addition to soldiers' uniforms, bedding, shoes, helmets, and flak vests, inmates have 'produced missile cables (including those used on the Patriot missiles during the Gulf War)' and 'wiring harnesses for jets and tanks.' In 1997, according to Prison Legal News, Boeing subcontractorMicroJet had prisoners cutting airplane components, paying $7 an hour for work that paid union wages of $30 on the outside.”

Oil companies have been known to exploit prison labor as well. Following the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon rig that killed 11 workers and irreparably damaged the Gulf of Mexico for generations to come, BP elected to hire Louisiana prison inmates to clean up its mess. Louisiana has the highest incarceration rate of any state in the nation, 70 percent of which are African-American men. Coastal residents desperate for work, whose livelihoods had been destroyed by BP’s negligence, were outraged at BP’s use of free prison labor.

In the Nation article that exposed BP’s hiring of inmates, Abe Louise Young details how BP tried to cover up its use of prisoners by changing the inmates' clothing to give the illusion of civilian workers. But nine out of 10 residents of Grand Isle, Louisiana are white, while the cleanup workers were almost exclusively black, so BP’s ruse fooled very few people.

Private companies have long understood that prison labor can be as profitable as sweatshop workers in third-world countries with the added benefit of staying closer to home. Take Escod Industries, which in the 1990s abandoned plans to open operations in Mexico and instead moved to South Carolina, because the wages of American prisoners undercut those of de-unionized Mexican sweatshop workers. The move was fueled by the state, which gave a $250,000 "equipment subsidy" to Escod along with industrial space at below-market rent. Other examples include Ohio's Honda supplier, which pays its prison workers $2 an hour for the same work for which the UAW has fought for decades to be paid $20 to $30 an hour; Konica, which has hired prisoners to repair its copiers for less than 50 cents an hour; and Oregon, where private companies can “lease” prisoners at a bargain price of $3 a day.


Even politicians have been known to tap into prison labor for their own personal use. In 1994, a contractor for GOP congressional candidate Jack Metcalf hired Washington state prisoners to call and remind voters he was pro-death penalty. He won his campaign claiming he had no knowledge of the scandal. Perhaps this is why Senator John Ensign (R-NV) introduced a bill earlier this year to require all low-security prisoners to work 50 hours a week. After all, creating a national prison labor force has been a goal of his since he went to Congress in 1995.

In an unsettling turn of events lawmakers have begun ditching public employees in favor of free prison labor. The New York Times recently reported that states are enlisting prison labor to close budget gaps to offset cuts in federal financing and dwindling tax revenue. At a time of record unemployment, inmates are being hired to paint vehicles, clean courthouses, sweep campsites and perform many other services done before the recession by private contractors or government employees. In Wisconsin, prisoners are now taking up jobs that were once held by unionized workers, as a result of Governor Scott Walker’s contentious anti-union law.

Why You Should Care

Those who argue in favor of prison labor claim it is a useful tool for rehabilitation and preparation for post-jail employment. But this has only been shown to be true in cases where prisoners are exposed to meaningful employment, where they learn new skills, not the labor-intensive, menial and often dangerous work they are being tasked with. While little if any evidence exists to suggests that the current prison labor system decreases recidivism or leads to better employment prospects outside of prison, there are a number of solutions that have been proven to be useful.

According to a study by the Pew Charitable Trusts, having a history of incarceration itself impedes subsequent economic success. Pew found that past incarceration reduced subsequent wages by 11 percent, cut annual employment by nine weeks and reduced yearly earnings by 40 percent. The study suggests that the best approach is for state and federal authorities to invest in programs that reconnect inmates to the labor market, as well as provide training and job placement services around the time of release. Most importantly, Pew says that in the long term, America must move toward alternative sentencing programs for low-level and nonviolent offenders, and issuing penalties that are actually proportionate with real public safety concerns.

The exploitation of any workforce is detrimental to all workers. Cheap and free labor pushes down wages for everyone. Just as American workers cannot compete with sweatshop labor, the same goes for prison labor. Many jobs that come into prison are taken from free citizens. The American labor movement must demand that prison labor be allowed the right to unionize, the right to a fair and living wage, and the right to a safe and healthy work environment. That is what prisoners are demanding, but they can only do so much from inside a prison cell.

As unemployment on the outside increases, so too will crime and incarceration rates, and our 21st-century version of corporate slavery will continue to expand unless we do something about it.


Rania Khalek is a progressive activist. Check out her blog Missing Pieces or follow her on Twitter @Rania_ak. You can contact her at raniakhalek@gmail.com.

21st-Century Slaves: How Corporations Exploit Prison Labor | World | AlterNet

21st-Century Slaves: How Corporations Exploit Prison Labor | World | AlterNet

By Rania Khalek, AlterNetPosted on July 21, 2011


There is one group of American workers so disenfranchised that corporations are able to get away with paying them wages that rival those of third-world sweatshops. These laborers have been legally stripped of their political, economic and social rights and ultimately relegated to second-class citizens. They are banned from unionizing, violently silenced from speaking out and forced to work for little to no wages. This marginalization renders them practically invisible, as they are kept hidden from society with no available recourse to improve their circumstances or change their plight.

They are the 2.3 million American prisoners locked behind bars where we cannot see or hear them. And they are modern-day slaves of the 21st century.

Incarceration Nation

It’s no secret that America imprisons more of its citizens than any other nation in history. With just 5 percent of the world’s population, the US currently holds 25 percent of the world's prisoners. In 2008, over 2.3 million Americans were in prison or jail, with one of every 48 working-age men behind bars. That doesn’t include the tens of thousands of detained undocumented immigrants facing deportation, prisoners awaiting sentencing, or juveniles caught up in the school-to-prison pipeline. Perhaps it’s reassuring to some that the US still holds the number one title in at least one arena, but needless to say the hyper-incarceration plaguing America has had a damaging effect on society at large.

According to a study by the Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR), US prison rates are not just excessive in comparison to the rest of the world, they are also substantially higher than our own longstanding history. The study finds that incarceration rates between 1880 and 1970 ranged from about 100 to 200 prisoners per 100,000 people. After 1980, the inmate population began to grow much more rapidly than the overall population and the rate climbed from about 220 in 1980 to 458 in 1990, 683 in 2000, and 753 in 2008.

The costs of this incarceration industry are far from evenly distributed, with the impact of excessive incarceration falling predominantly on African-American communities. Although black people make up just 13 percent of the overall population, they account for 40 percent of US prisoners. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), black males are incarcerated at a rate more than 6.5 times that of white males and 2.5 that of Hispanic males and black females are incarcerated at approximately three times the rate of white females and twice that of Hispanic females.

Michelle Alexander points out in her book The New Jim Crow that more black men are in jail, on probation, or on parole than were enslaved in 1850. Higher rates of black drug arrests do not reflect higher rates of black drug offenses. In fact, whites and blacks engage in drug offenses, possession and sales at roughly comparable rates.

Incentivizing Incarceration

Clearly, the US prison system is riddled with racism and classism, but it gets worse. As it turns out, private companies have a cheap, easy labor market, and it isn’t in China, Indonesia, Haiti, or Mexico. It’s right here in the land of the free, where large corporations increasingly employ prisoners as a source of cheap and sometimes free labor.

In the eyes of the corporation, inmate labor is a brilliant strategy in the eternal quest to maximize profit. By dipping into the prison labor pool, companies have their pick of workers who are not only cheap but easily controlled. Companies are free to avoid providing benefits like health insurance or sick days, while simultaneously paying little to no wages. They don’t need to worry about unions or demands for vacation time or raises. Inmate workers are full-time and never late or absent because of family problems.

If they refuse to work, they are moved to disciplinary housing and lose canteen privileges along with "good time" credit that reduces their sentences. To top it off, the federal government subsidizes the use of inmate labor by private companies through lucrative tax write-offs. Under the Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC), private-sector employers earn a tax credit of $2,400 for every work release inmate they employ as a reward for hiring “risky target groups” and they can earn back up to 40 percent of the wages they pay annually to "target group workers."

Study after study demonstrates the wastefulness of America's prison-industrial complex, in both taxpayer dollars and innocent lives, yet rolling back imprisonment rates is proving to be more challenging than ever. Meanwhile, the use of private prisons and now privately contracted inmate labor has created a system that does not exactly incentivize leaner sentencing.

The disturbing implications of such a system mean that skyrocketing imprisonment for the possession of miniscule amounts of marijuana and the the expansion of severe mandatory sentencing laws regardless of the conviction, are policies that have to potential to increase corporate profits. As are the“three strikes laws” that require courts to hand down mandatory and extended sentences to people who have been convicted of felonies on three or more separate occasions. People have literally been sentenced to life for minor crimes like shoplifting.


The Reinvention of Slavery

The exploitation of prison labor is by no means a new phenomenon. Jaron Browne, an organizer with People Organized to Win Employment Rights (POWER), maps out how the exploitation of prison labor in America is rooted in slavery. The abolition of slavery dealt a devastating economic blow to the South following the loss of free labor after the Civil War. So in the late 19th century, an extensive prison system was created in the South in order to maintain the racial and economic relationship of slavery, a mechanism responsible for re-enslaving black workers. Browne describes Louisiana’s famous Angola Prison to illustrate the intentional transformation from slave to inmate:

“In 1880, this 8000-acre family plantation was purchased by the state of Louisiana and converted into a prison. Slave quarters became cell units. Now expanded to 18,000 acres, the Angola plantation is tilled by prisoners working the land—a chilling picture of modern day chattel slavery.”

The abolition of slavery quickly gave rise to the Black Codes and Convict Leasing, which together worked wonders at perpetuating African American servitude by exploiting a loophole in the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution, which reads:

“Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”

The Black Codes were a set of laws that criminalized legal activity for African Americans and provided a pretext for the arrest and mass imprisonment of newly freed blacks, which caused the percentage of African Americans in prison to surpass whites for the first time. Convict leasing involved leasing out prisoners to private companies that paid the state a certain fee in return. Convicts worked for the companies during the day outside the prison and returned to their cells at night. The system provided revenue for the state and profits for plantation owners and wasn’t abolished until the 1930s.

Unfortunately, convict leasing was quickly replaced with equally despicable state-run chain gangs. Once again, stories of vicious abuse created enough public anger to abolish chain gangs by the 1950s. Nevertheless, the systems of prisoner exploitation never actually disappeared.

Today’s corporations can lease factories in prisons, as well as lease prisoners out to their factories. In many cases, private corporations are running prisons-for-profit, further incentivizing their stake in locking people up. The government is profiting as well, by running prison factories that operate as multibillion-dollar industries in every state, and throughout the federal prison system, where prisoners are contracted out to major corporations by the state.

In the most extreme cases, we are even witnessing the reemergence of the chain gang. In Arizona, the self-proclaimed “toughest sheriff in America,” Joe Arpaio, requires his Maricopa County inmates to enroll in chain gangs to perform various community services or face lockdown with three other inmates in an 8-by-12-foot cell, for 23 hours a day. In June of this year, Arpaio started a female-only chain gang made up of women convicted of driving under the influence. In a press release he boasted that the inmates would be wearing pink T-shirts emblazoned with messages about drinking and driving.

The modern-day version of convict leasing was recently spotted in Georgia, where Governor Nathan Deal proposed sending unemployed probationers to work in Georgia's fields as a solution to a perceived labor shortage following the passage of the country’s most draconian anti-immigrant law. But his plan backfired when some of the probationers began walking off their jobs because the fieldwork was too strenuous.

There has also been a disturbing reemergence of the debtors’ prison, which should serve as an ominous sign of our dangerous reliance on prisons to manage any and all of society’s problems. According to the Wall Street Journal more than a third of all U.S. states allow borrowers who can't or won't pay to be jailed. They found that judges signed off on more than 5,000 such warrants since the start of 2010 in nine counties. It appears that any act that can be criminalized in the era of private prisons and inmate labor will certainly end in jail time, further increasing the ranks of the captive workforce.

Who Profits?

Prior to the 1970s, private corporations were prohibited from using prison labor as a result of the chain gang and convict leasing scandals. But in 1979, Congress began a process of deregulation to restore private sector involvement in prison industries to its former status, provided certain conditions of the labor market were met. Over the last 30 years, at least 37 states have enacted laws permitting the use of convict labor by private enterprise, with an average pay of $0.93 to $4.73 per day.

Federal prisoners receive more generous wages that range from $0.23 to $1.25 per hour, and are employed by Unicor, a wholly owned government corporation established by Congress in 1934. Its principal customer is the Department of Defense, from which Unicor derives approximately 53 percent of its sales. Some 21,836 inmates work in Unicor programs. Subsequently, the nation's prison industry – prison labor programs producing goods or services sold to other government agencies or to the private sector -- now employs more people than any Fortune 500 company (besides General Motors), and generates about $2.4 billion in revenue annually. Noah Zatz of UCLA law school estimates that:

“Well over 600,000, and probably close to a million, inmates are working full-time in jails and prisons throughout the United States. Perhaps some of them built your desk chair: office furniture, especially in state universities and the federal government, is a major prison labor product. Inmates also take hotel reservations at corporate call centers, make body armor for the U.S. military, and manufacture prison chic fashion accessories, in addition to the iconic task of stamping license plates.”

Some of the largest and most powerful corporations have a stake in the expansion of the prison labor market, including but not limited to IBM, Boeing, Motorola, Microsoft, AT&T, Wireless, Texas Instrument, Dell, Compaq, Honeywell, Hewlett-Packard, Nortel, Lucent Technologies, 3Com, Intel, Northern Telecom, TWA, Nordstrom's, Revlon, Macy's, Pierre Cardin, Target Stores, and many more. Between 1980 and 1994 alone, profits went up from $392 million to $1.31 billion. Since the prison labor force has likely grown since then, it is safe to assume that the profits accrued from the use of prison labor have reached even higher levels.

In an article for Mother Jones, Caroline Winter details a number of mega-corporations that have profited off of inmates:

“In the 1990s, subcontractor Third Generation hired 35 female South Carolina inmates to sew lingerie and leisure wear for Victoria's Secret and JCPenney. In 1997, a California prison put two men in solitary for telling journalists they were ordered to replace 'Made in Honduras' labels on garments with 'Made in the USA.'"

According to Winter, the defense industry is a large part of the equation as well:

“Unicor, says that in addition to soldiers' uniforms, bedding, shoes, helmets, and flak vests, inmates have 'produced missile cables (including those used on the Patriot missiles during the Gulf War)' and 'wiring harnesses for jets and tanks.' In 1997, according to Prison Legal News, Boeing subcontractorMicroJet had prisoners cutting airplane components, paying $7 an hour for work that paid union wages of $30 on the outside.”

Oil companies have been known to exploit prison labor as well. Following the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon rig that killed 11 workers and irreparably damaged the Gulf of Mexico for generations to come, BP elected to hire Louisiana prison inmates to clean up its mess. Louisiana has the highest incarceration rate of any state in the nation, 70 percent of which are African-American men. Coastal residents desperate for work, whose livelihoods had been destroyed by BP’s negligence, were outraged at BP’s use of free prison labor.

In the Nation article that exposed BP’s hiring of inmates, Abe Louise Young details how BP tried to cover up its use of prisoners by changing the inmates' clothing to give the illusion of civilian workers. But nine out of 10 residents of Grand Isle, Louisiana are white, while the cleanup workers were almost exclusively black, so BP’s ruse fooled very few people.

Private companies have long understood that prison labor can be as profitable as sweatshop workers in third-world countries with the added benefit of staying closer to home. Take Escod Industries, which in the 1990s abandoned plans to open operations in Mexico and instead moved to South Carolina, because the wages of American prisoners undercut those of de-unionized Mexican sweatshop workers. The move was fueled by the state, which gave a $250,000 "equipment subsidy" to Escod along with industrial space at below-market rent. Other examples include Ohio's Honda supplier, which pays its prison workers $2 an hour for the same work for which the UAW has fought for decades to be paid $20 to $30 an hour; Konica, which has hired prisoners to repair its copiers for less than 50 cents an hour; and Oregon, where private companies can “lease” prisoners at a bargain price of $3 a day.


Even politicians have been known to tap into prison labor for their own personal use. In 1994, a contractor for GOP congressional candidate Jack Metcalf hired Washington state prisoners to call and remind voters he was pro-death penalty. He won his campaign claiming he had no knowledge of the scandal. Perhaps this is why Senator John Ensign (R-NV) introduced a bill earlier this year to require all low-security prisoners to work 50 hours a week. After all, creating a national prison labor force has been a goal of his since he went to Congress in 1995.

In an unsettling turn of events lawmakers have begun ditching public employees in favor of free prison labor. The New York Times recently reported that states are enlisting prison labor to close budget gaps to offset cuts in federal financing and dwindling tax revenue. At a time of record unemployment, inmates are being hired to paint vehicles, clean courthouses, sweep campsites and perform many other services done before the recession by private contractors or government employees. In Wisconsin, prisoners are now taking up jobs that were once held by unionized workers, as a result of Governor Scott Walker’s contentious anti-union law.

Why You Should Care

Those who argue in favor of prison labor claim it is a useful tool for rehabilitation and preparation for post-jail employment. But this has only been shown to be true in cases where prisoners are exposed to meaningful employment, where they learn new skills, not the labor-intensive, menial and often dangerous work they are being tasked with. While little if any evidence exists to suggests that the current prison labor system decreases recidivism or leads to better employment prospects outside of prison, there are a number of solutions that have been proven to be useful.

According to a study by the Pew Charitable Trusts, having a history of incarceration itself impedes subsequent economic success. Pew found that past incarceration reduced subsequent wages by 11 percent, cut annual employment by nine weeks and reduced yearly earnings by 40 percent. The study suggests that the best approach is for state and federal authorities to invest in programs that reconnect inmates to the labor market, as well as provide training and job placement services around the time of release. Most importantly, Pew says that in the long term, America must move toward alternative sentencing programs for low-level and nonviolent offenders, and issuing penalties that are actually proportionate with real public safety concerns.

The exploitation of any workforce is detrimental to all workers. Cheap and free labor pushes down wages for everyone. Just as American workers cannot compete with sweatshop labor, the same goes for prison labor. Many jobs that come into prison are taken from free citizens. The American labor movement must demand that prison labor be allowed the right to unionize, the right to a fair and living wage, and the right to a safe and healthy work environment. That is what prisoners are demanding, but they can only do so much from inside a prison cell.

As unemployment on the outside increases, so too will crime and incarceration rates, and our 21st-century version of corporate slavery will continue to expand unless we do something about it.


Rania Khalek is a progressive activist. Check out her blog Missing Pieces or follow her on Twitter @Rania_ak. You can contact her at raniakhalek@gmail.com.

The RIGHT to Same-Sex Marriage? Prideful Times May Call for New Fears

Flags waiving, music blaring, the nearly 6,000 participants in this past New York Pride celebration meant that folks had much to be prideful for. Passing the Republican majority Senate late Friday night two weeks ago, the state legalized same-sex marriage, making it the 6th and largest state to recognize the right. Many are calling this a huge and especially important victory for gay rights, as this same month in 1969 New York City saw a police raid at the Stonewall Inn (a bar in the West Village), which ultimately helped to spawn the gay rights movement.

When I heard the news of the law’s passage, I was sitting in one of my favorite bars in Oakland with two fellow social justice advocates. The three of us clinked glasses, hugged, and hollered in the name of gay rights, human rights, and, ultimately, justice. I was on an incredible high that made my participation in the San Francisco Pride an even more important and special experience for me. It wasn’t until the weekend ended – the floats put away, ticker tape cleared, and crowds dispersed that the fog lifted and I began to ponder the possible future effects of the law.

In a New York Times OP-Ed piece entitled Marriage Is a Mixed Blessing, Katherine M. Franke points out that while many in the community have worked hard to establish the right for same-sex couples to marry, many have also been working hard to establish alternatives to marriage. For these individuals, domestic partnerships and civil unions are not a consolation prize to those not allowed to marry, but instead provide a sense of freedom that doesn’t have to conform to the one-size-fits-all rules of marriage.

This movement does not claim to be anti-marriage, but rather, pro-choice, in that commitment should not be an all or nothing decision. With the understanding that in most cases domestic partnerships are recognized to rectify the injustice of same-sex couples not being able to marry, many fear that with the passage of the new law will come the abolition of domestic partnerships. If employers offer marriage as the only option, this may mean that those currently in a domestic partnership run the risk of losing their healthcare benefits. Ultimately, these individuals will have no choice; they will be forced to either marry or lose their benefits all together.

The RJ movement focuses on reproductive oppression, rather than a narrow focus on protecting the legal right to abortion. Therefore, the central theme of the reproductive justice framework is a focus on the control and exploitation of women’s bodies, sexuality, and reproduction as an effective strategy for controlling women and communities. Controlling a woman’s body means controlling her life, her options, and her potential, and thus it can be said that controlling one individual becomes a strategic pathway to regulating entire communities.

There exists a fear that the NY law will ultimately control or oppress the gay community through these individual state sanctioned relationships. While the state may not be controlling their bodies in the physical sense, they are controlling their choice, options, and thus, their potential. Without the aid of insurance, many may find adoption and assisted reproductive techniques difficult or impossible to attain. This is severely limiting the gay community from participating in a reproductive choice.

Many have contently been living for years without the legal ability to marry and have developed their own way of loving, caring, and living together that they feel fits them better than marriage. This is an extremely complex issue that the state will not be able to resolve over night; however, it is an issue that deserves extreme consideration. Whether gay or straight, is it fair to force people to marry in order to have their committed relationships recognized and valued (in the eyes of the state)? While we struggle to find answers to the new problems the law will inevitably bring, you may find me slowly and quietly waiving my flag for the gay rights movement.

Nikki Tuttle

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Wrap-up of Amazing SisterSong Conference

On Sunday, SisterSong wrapped up their “Let’s Talk About Sex: Love, Legislation, and Leadership” (LTAS) conference. The conference agenda ranged from workshops on taking care of your womb to understanding the legislative attacks on reproductive rights. Conference attendants ranging from pre-teens to great grandmothers participated in active discussions throughout the weekend with the opportunities to apply them daily. After every plenary there was an open mic opportunity to ask the panelists questions or talk about what was going on in your own community or work.  SisterSong did a great job making sure the weekend was not only informative but that attendants would also know how to make the information they shared benefit their communities.  In a hotel filled with hundreds of people who were unaware of what the RJ movement stood for you often saw attendees in conversations with other hotel guests explaining WHY we were there talking about SEX.

SisterSong and Trust Black Women’s newest film premiered during the conference, “We Always Resist,” a documentary capturing the activism of Black women in response to the anti-abortion movement and their attacks on women of color through a national billboard campaign. On Saturday the staff of SisterSong took time out to publicly honor the amazing Loretta Ross. Some of her closest friends and colleagues honored the activist and educator (to name only a few titles) with tear jerking words of gratitude for all she has done for them personally, for our communities, and for the reproductive justice movement.

The four day conference concluded with a call for action plenary. After being informed by community organizers, environmentalist, youth activists, and representatives from multiple races what strategies would emerge, we wanted to know what do we do with the information. Themes such as mentoring the youth in our communities, writing letters to our officials, actively reporting violations, and building networks and coalitions were discussed. Overall, the conference was truly inspiring and engaging. Where else do you get to meet FIVE other wonderful Women’s Studies majors like myself, attend workshops by Dorothy Roberts, and witness an amazing Brown Girls Burlesque show?! Once again, I leave you with these quotes from the weekend.

“We have the right to be treated with dignity even if we engage in sex work and are seeking social services”-Shira Hassan (Young Women’s Empowerment Project)

Many assumptions that social services work…so why are our young people running away from them? -Shira Hassan

Same forces that are trying to destroy the ocean outside this hotel are also trying to destroy OUR communities- Nia Robinson

If we want people to trust women of color WE have to trust people of color! – Andrea Ritchie (Streetwise and Safe)

Never be more of a man than you are a human being. – Dr. Willie J. Parker

Erika Willis

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Body-Positive Conceptual Artist, Layne Arlina

Want to take a second to direct ya'll to a super amazing female/sex/body-positive artist I've had the pleasure of becoming e-acquainted with, Layne Arlina. Arlina is a conceptually driven, multidisciplinary artist based in Bristol, UK.

In the artist's words,
Personal taboos and those set by society are issues that continue to stimulate my desire to create art. I enjoy using myself as a subject to understand these issues; attempting to detach myself from society; understanding isolation and oneness. The use of meat in art also intrigues me, mostly as I have an interest in blood as a medium and the fears surrounding disease and interspecies contamination...I am still very much interested in why we seem to reject nature and shy away from the constant reminders of our kinship, I feel this will be prevalent within my practice for a long time yet.
Here a few of my favorite pieces by Layne.

She works a lot with the concept of shame surrounding body hair, a topic that's (obviously) most pertinent to women.

Cutting Away My Artificial Self

Cutting away my Artificial Self from Layne Arlina on Vimeo.


Six Months of Shame


Body Tax


Meat is also a prevalent theme in Layne's art, mostly as she has an "interest in blood as a medium and the fears surrounding disease and interspecies contamination."

Eat Me


This next piece has been particularly controversial, attracting internet trolls the world over (as you can imagine).

Self-Portrait With Menstrual Blood, Blood on Canvas


Self Portrait with Menstrual Blood 2, Photograph


Check out Layne's post Interesting Feedback, featuring comments both praising and condemning her for her menstrual blood piece and highlighting the larger conversation surrounding the biological female body & its reproductive functions.

Layne Arlina is not just a female artist, but one that does a lot to highlight women's experiences and issues. Follow her on Google/Blogspot or on Facebook for updates and drop her a line if you feel so inclined!

Body-Positive Conceptual Artist, Layne Arlina

Want to take a second to direct ya'll to a super amazing female/sex/body-positive artist I've had the pleasure of becoming e-acquainted with, Layne Arlina. Arlina is a conceptually driven, multidisciplinary artist based in Bristol, UK.

In the artist's words,
Personal taboos and those set by society are issues that continue to stimulate my desire to create art. I enjoy using myself as a subject to understand these issues; attempting to detach myself from society; understanding isolation and oneness. The use of meat in art also intrigues me, mostly as I have an interest in blood as a medium and the fears surrounding disease and interspecies contamination...I am still very much interested in why we seem to reject nature and shy away from the constant reminders of our kinship, I feel this will be prevalent within my practice for a long time yet.
Here a few of my favorite pieces by Layne.

She works a lot with the concept of shame surrounding body hair, a topic that's (obviously) most pertinent to women.

Cutting Away My Artificial Self

Cutting away my Artificial Self from Layne Arlina on Vimeo.


Six Months of Shame


Body Tax


Meat is also a prevalent theme in Layne's art, mostly as she has an "interest in blood as a medium and the fears surrounding disease and interspecies contamination."

Eat Me


This next piece has been particularly controversial, attracting internet trolls the world over (as you can imagine).

Self-Portrait With Menstrual Blood, Blood on Canvas


Self Portrait with Menstrual Blood 2, Photograph


Check out Layne's post Interesting Feedback, featuring comments both praising and condemning her for her menstrual blood piece and highlighting the larger conversation surrounding the biological female body & its reproductive functions.

Layne Arlina is not just a female artist, but one that does a lot to highlight women's experiences and issues. Follow her on Google/Blogspot or on Facebook for updates and drop her a line if you feel so inclined!

Women of Punk on Network Awesome

Network Awesome is a site that seeks out & archives cool TV from the past. Today they posted interviews with punk women! Check it out below or visit the site for more fun.